Our challenge is to solve the following contradiction of modern society. On one hand, we can’t set prices for goods and services below the equilibrium, because it results in deficiency. On the other hand, we can’t prevent the spread of knowledge and information, transforming them into services and setting any prices on them, since non-proliferation of knowledge and information leads to losses in human productivity.
This contradiction is a result of misconception of the “free” in the communist society, generated, apparently, by rapid development of the consumer society. Only by its sick imagination communism could be presented as a society where everything is “free”. This error led to a failed attempt to build a socialist society in the USSR. We can see this error, for example, in Dmitriy Puchkov’s conversation with Boris Yulin about communism, where “free-of-charge” basis of services was considered the characteristic of communist and socialist society, without examination of payment for them.
Indeed, let’s take a look. When we get “free” help from our acquaintances, friends or neighbours, is it so free? No, it isn’t. We remember about it, we form a moral obligation that we are committed to return in the future. Without this mechanism of remembering the debt and future fulfillment of obligations it’s hard to imagine the functioning of a primitive communist society. With our consumptive concept of “free” such a society would have collapsed immediately. Having taken all the benefits from it, we would forget to return them, leaving nothing in it. It can be said that it would have been plundered by us, carriers of thieves’ ideology, i.e. thieves. It’s no wonder that the word “to steal” got a synonym in the USSR: “to communize”.
The evolution of the decay of primitive communism, moral society, and the emergence of an immoral society can be simplistically represented in the next stages. The first stage is the invention of theft through commodity exchange, when the main recording of debts obtained commodity character, and, in the future, monetary character. Intangible and non-monetary debts cease to be paid increasingly. Without this process, it’s difficult to imagine the emergence of at least some uneven distribution of public goods. The second stage is exaltation of theft to the rank of the shrine, where the ideal is payment of only monetary debts and the direct refusal to recognize the existence of the moral ones. Liberal ideology becomes the mouthpiece of the second stage. Legal state is invented, and with it comes an ethical phenomenon later called “fascism” – a combination of civilization and barbarism, when a person disappears if he is outside the frames of legal state, the law doesn’t protect him, and any amoral attitude toward such a person becomes legal.
Restoration of a moral society, too, can be represented in several stages, inverse to the stages of its destruction. The first stage is rejection of the liberal ideology and the recognition of significant moral duty. In this case, for example, a victim of the Soviet Union of more than 20 million lives to save Europe from Nazism becomes of real weight. European countries don’t try to rewrite history with a view to forget their moral duty and actually begin to pay it through cooperation and mutual integration. In this light, problems of post-Soviet space the destruction of which is directly connected with the levelling by EU of its moral duty and the promotion of purely European law on restitution. Also, we can hope to resolve the territorial dispute between Russia and Japan over a formal and imprecise definition in the contract, because the outcomes of World War II are much more significant, and the recognition of their real can correct any formal error.
The second stage is the record-keeping of intangible debts and the use these records for their redemption (author’s works often include parts of the works of other authors). In this case, for example, private investments in basic science become possible. They will be protected by developed, supra-national civil society. The whole of science can exist only at the expense of civil society which fulfills its moral obligations. The necessity of such a mechanism can be seen, for example, in the emergence of advertising blocking programs on different information resources, and thus, the inability of their further development due to their advertising.
The alternative mechanism can be the following. Paid likes are introduced at information resources. The state introduces a differentiating service in order to automatically calculate the fair value of a like depending on the size of income and social status of the citizen. This mechanism significantly improves the cash flow in the market of information goods and allows to organize a unified system of discounts for material goods. A civil society is being formed, which further introduces additional mechanisms of redistribution of cash flows between the various agents in accordance with the moral obligations to them. The state promotes the need for moral behavior as a way to reduce violence and to reduce the need for its use. As a result, when society acts in compliance with moral standards, the need for the institutions of violence reduces. It leads to an even greater influence of morality and to the further reduction of violence, etc. This process will lead to the full restoration of a moral society without the institutions of violence or, at least, with their minimum presence.